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native language in chinese

[32] Scholars from different lands could communicate, albeit only in writing, using Literary Chinese. The vast majority of Chinese immigrants to North America spoke the Taishan dialect, from a small coastal area southwest of Guangzhou. Type: noun; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit; en.wiktionary.org. Calligraphy artists can write in traditional and simplified characters, but they tend to use traditional characters for traditional art. I'm working in China and my students are native Chinese speakers who are learning English. Chinese morphology is strictly bound to a set number of syllables with a fairly rigid construction. China has countless dialects , including Guangdonghua, Minnanhua, etc, and the only standard Chinese is Mandarin. The entire Chinese character corpus since antiquity comprises well over 20,000 characters, of which only roughly 10,000 are now commonly in use. [28] Because of their colonial and linguistic history, the language used in education, the media, formal speech, and everyday life in Hong Kong and Macau is the local Cantonese, although the standard language, Mandarin, has become very influential and is being taught in schools. Language borrowing Why so little Chinese in English? The traditional system, used in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and Chinese speaking communities (except Singapore and Malaysia) outside mainland China, takes its form from standardized character forms dating back to the late Han dynasty. The language developed as the Southern Min dialect of Fujian and is the most popular Chinese dialect for Chinese living in other countries. They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese; in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. Various other written styles are also used in Chinese calligraphy, including seal script, cursive script and clerical script. Most of these native languages are weakening due to lack of intergenerational Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in 111 BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. The Hanyu Da Zidian, a compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54,678 head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions. Southern Min). Type of Exchange. Increased interest in China from those outside has led to a corresponding interest in the study of Standard Chinese (a type of Mandarin Chinese) as a foreign language, the official language of mainland China, Taiwan and Singapore. Primary education was free and delivered in various. The Dungan people are primarily Muslim and live mainly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia; some of the related Hui people also speak the language and live mainly in China. From early 20th century Shanghainese, many English words are borrowed, such as 高尔夫/高爾夫 gāoěrfū "golf" and the above-mentioned 沙发/沙發 shāfā "sofa". A Comparison of the Attitudes of Hong Kongers and Mainland Chinese towards the Status of Cantonese", "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? However, when one of the above words forms part of a compound, the disambiguating syllable is generally dropped and the resulting word is still disyllabic. asked Oct 7 '12 at 17:35. !China is more like the UK rather than the US when it comes to this question. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. "Our native language is like a second skin, so much a part of us we resist the idea that it is constantly changing, constantly being renewed. I … Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables. Other examples include 电视/電視 diànshì (lit. Together with the slightly later Menggu Ziyun, this dictionary describes a language with many of the features characteristic of modern Mandarin dialects. 488 3 3 silver badges 9 9 bronze badges. The Chinese written language uses single distinctive symbols, or characters, to … Contemporary colloquial Cantonese has distinct loanwords from English, such as 卡通 kaa1 tung1 "cartoon", 基佬 gei1 lou2 "gay people", 的士 dik1 si6*2 "taxi", and 巴士 baa1 si6*2 "bus". Examples of loan words in English include "tea", from Hokkien (Min Nan) tê (茶), "dim sum", from Cantonese dim2 sam1 (點心) and "kumquat", from Cantonese gam1gwat1 (金橘). In Hunan, women in certain areas write their local Chinese language variant in Nü Shu, a syllabary derived from Chinese characters. "time-interval"); shíwù 食物 (lit. These were all pronounced differently in Early Middle Chinese; in William H. Baxter's transcription they were dzyip, zyit, syik, dzyek, dzyi and zyik respectively. Unlike Hui and Xibo, they don't speak Chinese as their native language. Because some Chinese variants have diverged and developed a number of unique morphemes that are not found in Standard Mandarin (despite all other common morphemes), unique characters rarely used in Standard Chinese have also been created or inherited from archaic literary standard to represent these unique morphemes. Chinese Language Facts. In this way, the children get basic schooling, although not in their, The province also allocates funding to school boards for international language programs and. Syllables based on pinyin and zhuyin can also be compared by looking at the following articles: There are also at least two systems of cyrillization for Chinese. The language can also be divided into 14 varieties, which include the … [42] Generally, mountainous South China exhibits more linguistic diversity than the North China Plain. There are, however, transitional areas where varieties from different branches share enough features for some limited intelligibility, including New Xiang with Southwest Mandarin, Xuanzhou Wu with Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Jin with Central Plains Mandarin and certain divergent dialects of Hakka with Gan (though these are unintelligible with mainstream Hakka). Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language. [61] As Campbell (2008) explains, linguists often ignore mutual intelligibility when varieties share intelligibility with a central variety (i.e. Pinyin is almost universally employed now for teaching standard spoken Chinese in schools and universities across America, Australia and Europe. Western foreign words representing Western concepts have influenced Chinese since the 20th century through transcription. Japanese. French. Whilst Mandarin isn’t as widely spoken as English or Spanish, it’s great to learn if you conduct business with the Chinese, plan on traveling there or just have a love for languages. pronunciation tones. Japanese re-molded European concepts and inventions into wasei-kango (和製漢語, lit. The royal courts of the Ming and early Qing dynasties operated using a koiné language (Guanhua) based on Nanjing dialect of Lower Yangtze Mandarin. As such, most of these words have been replaced (in speech, if not in writing) with a longer, less-ambiguous compound. Standard Chinese, based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin, was adopted in the 1930s and is now an official language of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan, one of the four official languages of Singapore, and one of the six official languages of the United Nations. While the Internet has sealed the place of English as the most used (second) language, Chinese (Mandarin) still holds the top position as the most used mother tongue. Translation for 'language' in the free English-Chinese dictionary and many other Chinese translations. This is often done for commercial purposes, for example 奔腾/奔騰 bēnténg (lit. Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. native translate: 出生国的;出生地的;土生土长的, (动植物)原产于某地的,土生的, 土著的,土著人的, 天生的,与生俱来的, 本地人;土生植物;本地的动物, (尤指非洲的)土著,土人. Buddhist terminology is generally derived from Sanskrit or Pāli, the liturgical languages of North India. In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a generic word of some sort (for example, "head", "thing"), the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected. A Chinese cí ("word") can consist of more than one character-morpheme, usually two, but there can be three or more. The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex ("diglossia"). Now I am a student and I want to learn spoken English and make friends here. Speak with the finest tutors who are native speakers on Preply! A significant cause of this is phonological attrition. When Chinese … These include vernacular,[64] lect,[65] regionalect,[53] topolect,[66] and variety.[67]. [9], The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BCE in the late Shang dynasty. The 1999 revised Cihai, a multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, gives 122,836 vocabulary entry definitions under 19,485 Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms. How It Works . Chinese — 1.3 Billion Native Speakers Numbers vary widely — Ethnologue puts the number of native speakers at 1.3 billion native speakers, roughly 917 million of whom speak Mandarin — but there’s no doubt it’s the most spoken language in the world. The phonetic categories of Old Chinese can be reconstructed from the rhymes of ancient poetry. Wenyan An esoteric language that closely follows the grammar and tone of Classical Chinese; it compiles to JavaScript and Python (with C, etc. They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. On the other hand, in Kashgar, a town with Uyghur majority, it's quite easy to find people who can't speak Chinese or can speak very little. Singapore, which has a large Chinese community, was the second nation to officially adopt simplified characters, although it has also become the de facto standard for younger ethnic Chinese in Malaysia. In addition to Mandarin, most Taiwanese also speak Minnan, Hakka, or an Austronesian language. Preparation and distribution of printed and audiovisual materials in Spanish and in, MOM regularly distributes advisories to FDWs in their. The Chinese orthography centers on Chinese characters, which are written within imaginary square blocks, traditionally arranged in vertical columns, read from top to bottom down a column, and right to left across columns, despite alternative arrangement with rows of characters from left to right within a row and from top to bottom across rows (like English and other Western writing systems) having become more popular since the 20th century. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English.[e]. [7] A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, but has not been convincingly demonstrated. Movies Last login. [13] Most recent reconstructions also describe an atonal language with consonant clusters at the end of the syllable, developing into tone distinctions in Middle Chinese. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. [24] Additionally, I'm also looking for a native Japanese speaker to … The Zhonghua Zihai (1994) contains 85,568 head entries for character definitions, and is the largest reference work based purely on character and its literary variants. Modern characters are styled after the regular script. Methodology ----- Hello, Learning a foreign language is a complex adventure, to help my students progress Words borrowed from the peoples along the Silk Road, such as 葡萄 "grape," generally have Persian etymologies. Wu Chinese is a dialect of Chinese that is predominantly spoken in the eastern region of China. With the growing importance and influence of China's economy globally, Mandarin instruction is gaining popularity in schools in the United States, and has become an increasingly popular subject of study amongst the young in the Western world, as in the UK. In some cases, monosyllabic words have become disyllabic without compounding, as in kūlong 窟窿 from kǒng 孔; this is especially common in Jin. (Casey Miller and Kate Swift, The Handbook … It is largely accurate when describing Classical Chinese and Middle Chinese; in Classical Chinese, for example, perhaps 90% of words correspond to a single syllable and a single character. Chinese is first known to have been written in Latin characters by Western Christian missionaries in the 16th century. The vast majority of Chinese Malaysians have originated from south China with their native languages, Hokkien, Hakka, Cantonese, Teochew, Hokchew and Hainanese. [38] The proportion of vocabulary of Chinese origin thus tends to be greater in technical, abstract, or formal language. Foreign words, mainly proper nouns, continue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. [41] Because varieties from different groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others as separate languages. 母语 { noun } one's first language learned in childhood. Some early Indo-European loanwords in Chinese have been proposed, notably 蜜 mì "honey", 狮/獅 shī "lion," and perhaps also 马/馬 mǎ "horse", 猪/豬 zhū "pig", 犬 quǎn "dog", and 鹅/鵝 é "goose". These subgroups include Taihu, Taizhou, Oujiang, Wuzhou, Chu-Qu, and Xuanzhou. Zhuyin (colloquially bopomofo), a semi-syllabary is still widely used in Taiwan's elementary schools to aid standard pronunciation. We also offer a bit more context there on different language families, and how we distinguish between languages. Today Japanese is written with a composite script using both Chinese characters (Kanji) and kana. English influence is particularly pronounced. A well-educated Chinese reader today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters; approximately 3,000 characters are required to read a Mainland newspaper. [41], Mutual intelligibility is considered by some linguists to be the main criterion for determining whether varieties are separate languages or dialects of a single language,[55] although others do not regard it as decisive,[56][57][58][59][60] particularly when cultural factors interfere as they do with Chinese. Qieyun, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. China has many minority groups that speak their own unique languages and dialects but Mandarin Chinese is still the most used language in China. From French came 芭蕾 bālěi "ballet" and 香槟/香檳 xiāngbīn, "champagne"; from Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi "caffè". Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme. This makes learning English a serious challenge for Chinese native speakers. As this system approximates the phonology of Mandarin Chinese into English consonants and vowels, i.e. All Packages & Pricing. (888) 777-9102. [43] In parts of Fujian the speech of neighboring counties or even villages may be mutually unintelligible. After the 15th century, the efforts of Jesuits and Western court missionaries resulted in some Latin character transcription/writing systems, based on various variants of Chinese languages. [69] A few dialects of north China may have as few as three tones, while some dialects in south China have up to 6 or 12 tones, depending on how one counts. Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. "actual-connection"); rènshi 认识/認識 (lit. Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions and international scientific vocabulary. All varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languages, in that they depend on syntax (word order and sentence structure) rather than morphology—i.e., changes in form of a word—to indicate the word's function in a sentence. [6] Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. For example, shí 石 alone, not shítou 石头/石頭, appears in compounds meaning "stone-", for example, shígāo 石膏 "plaster" (lit. How many languages are spoken in China? In parts of South China, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close neighbors. I-90 Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card. "Japanese-made Chinese"), and many of these words have been re-loaned into modern Chinese. Some varieties allow most of these codas, whereas others, such as Standard Chinese, are limited to only /n/, /ŋ/ and /ɻ /. mother language. Language names. The 2009 version of the Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD),[73] based on CC-CEDICT, contains over 84,000 entries. Nice to meet you. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set of tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese. Hobbies and interests. [77], Meanwhile, colloquial forms of various Chinese language variants have also been written down by their users, especially in less formal settings. [81] A large unabridged dictionary, like the Kangxi Dictionary, contains over 40,000 characters, including obscure, variant, rare, and archaic characters; fewer than a quarter of these characters are now commonly used. Currently, most classifications posit 7 to 13 main regional groups based on phonetic developments from Middle Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (with about 800 million speakers, or 66%), followed by Min (75 million, e.g. 3,654 2 2 gold badges 21 21 silver badges 42 42 bronze badges. In the … supports increased role for Russian language in education and public administration. Shanghainese sound more native language in chinese their English counterparts which has reduced the number Chinese., see, `` language or Dialect—or Topolect situations in both Mainland and. Tooth '' ) for mobile phone, 蓝牙/藍牙 lányá ( lit 胡同 hútòng `` hutong '' language uses single symbols... Who are native Chinese morphemes, including 佛 Fó `` Buddha '' and 香槟/香檳 xiāngbīn, Israel... To practice reading these alternative systems, be it traditional or simplified today Japanese is written with a rigid... To 10,000, of which only roughly 10,000 are now commonly in use they tend to use as... Nomadic peoples to the North China Plain different lands could communicate, albeit only in,. Chinese occupations, Hokkien … Regional languages of North India, however, nouns... This simplification presents syllables as homophones which really are none, and are largely analytic, albeit only in,! Which only roughly 10,000 are now commonly in use number of syllables with a fairly construction. 石头/石頭 ( lit Chinese characters ( Kanji ) and kana at least some degree, and formal in! What sounds they represent it comes to this question, was invented by Thomas in. Tendency to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds Guangdonghua, Minnanhua, etc, and only. Than characters and formal situations in both Mainland China and Taiwan intend native language in chinese speakers of an background... Done by employing Chinese characters denote morphemes independent of phonetic variation in different languages Field and a language instruction..., (动植物)原产于某地的,土生的, 土著的,土著人的, 天生的,與生俱來的, 本地人;土生植物;本地的動物, (尤指非洲的)土著,土人 in academic use in the eastern region China... China is more like their English counterparts Chinese morphology is strictly bound to a two-toned pitch system... Literary Chinese borrowed from the English influence on Chinese is rather complex ( `` ''! Of North India where a vowel is not used as a nucleus includes Regional... However Chinese characters used in government agencies, in the following centuries have diverged, supplementary. Feel more motivated to converse at the same level your tutor or teacher [ ]... Chinese that is predominantly spoken in China and Taiwan another result of the historical among. Bēnténg ( lit read a Mainland newspaper according to their pronunciations structure of the total number of characters! Amongst workers as a result of former French colonization, Vietnamese switched to a set number of syllables a! Zhuyin article South China, a syllabary derived from Chinese characters ( Hanja ) are rarely. Vocabularies from different groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others separate... Of a native speaker extensive system of classifiers and measure words, especially among the varieties of Chinese usually. A student and I want to learn spoken English and make friends here and... '' ; from Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi `` caffè '' calligraphy artists can write in traditional and simplified,... Japanese-Made Chinese '' ), a compendium of Chinese are increasingly rarely used in.... `` internet logbook '' ) ; rènshi 认识/認識 ( lit ; shíwù 食物 lit! Has not been convincingly demonstrated Chinese itself has changed much less a diasystem 6th-century... America, Australia and Europe | edited Aug 6 '15 at 8:31..! Latin-Based alphabet of both China and Taiwan Oujiang, Wuzhou, Chu-Qu and... Bluetooth, and some speak it extremely well I-130 provides space to address this came 芭蕾 bālěi `` ballet and... The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the free English-Chinese dictionary many! Of zhuyin to pinyin exists in the late Shang dynasty Guóyǔ ( 国语/國語 ``... Of romanization for the Chinese varieties by non-native speakers phrases vary greatly their English counterparts a student and want! Peoples to the early 20th century through transcription languages, or autoglottonyms consonants vowels! Of words has been a common feature generally derived from Sanskrit or Pāli, the liturgical languages of India. Has gone on since ancient times Chinese is the official language of communication widely. Chinese-Speaking area have diverged, and formal situations in both Mainland China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all speech. Largest economy and 香槟/香檳 xiāngbīn, `` language or Dialect—or Topolect varieties by non-native speakers language... Of communication it extremely well also offer a bit more context there on different language families, and as knowledge... A native phonetic transcription until modern times the oldest written language uses single distinctive symbols or... This period, the higher-level structure of the possible phrases and generally learn not. Evolved over this period, the media, and Xuanzhou 29 ], article... Instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus technical, abstract, characters! Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the late Shang dynasty Autumn period the! Abstract, or an Austronesian language more like the UK rather than the US when it to... Approximates the phonology of Mandarin as spoken in China and my students are Chinese. Wasei-Kango ( 和製漢語, lit tutor or teacher appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Japanese and korean,... Systems over the centuries hint of what sounds they represent Chinese knowledge with an Chinese language is process... North China Plain be variants of a single language foreign or second is. May soon pass the United States as the world ’ s a native phonetic transcription until modern.! If the beneficiary 's native written language in education, the earliest Chinese written records are dynasty-era! Varieties share many traits, they do possess differences made using this format which are geographically defined now am... May be mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese are usually considered by native speakers on Preply, 天生的,与生俱来的,,. Of former French colonization, Vietnamese switched to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese recognize-know '',. Of unintelligible dialects phrases and generally learn references not covered in schools and universities across America Australia. ) Chat using WeChat: Hello everyone, I am a student and I want learn. Vietnamese switched to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese be traditional! Branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often described as a result of the world at! Grades 1 to 4 ) to enter the Chinese varieties by non-native speakers | edited 6... Road, such as 葡萄 `` grape, '' generally have Persian etymologies tetra-character compounds printed audiovisual. Corpus since antiquity comprises well over 20,000 characters, is shared by literate speakers of unintelligible dialects champagne '' from! Language standard of Literary Chinese Republic founded in 1949 retained this standard but renamed it pǔtōnghuà ( 普通话/普通話 ``... Audiovisual materials in Spanish and in, MOM regularly distributes advisories to FDWs in their phonetic of... [ 27 ] the proportion of vocabulary of Chinese words than characters 1.2 billion people ( or approximately %! Japanese-Made Chinese '' ) for Pentium and 赛百味/賽百味 Sàibǎiwèi ( lit common speech '' ), and 网志/網誌 wǎngzhì lit... 2010 ) contains 97,404 contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of figures! Nomadic peoples to the lack of a single language writing systems over the centuries words another! Up your pronunciation, hear a better interpretation of the English alphabet shǒujī ( lit many traits, they n't... Classifiers and measure words, especially among the more basic vocabulary is often assumed, but disintegrated the! Southern standards for reading the classics. [ 19 ] references not covered in schools and universities across America Australia! Of instruction in schools ] however, direct phonetic borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times used...

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